Sentence elements

To be able to understand and use the scheme for word order in Norwegian sentences, you need to know how to analyse a sentence.

Verb Phrase (predicator)

The verb phrase consists of the finite verbs or the compound verbs in the sentence.

You can usually identify the verb phrase by asking what the subject of the clause is doing.

Verb phrase
Jon leser avisen hver dag

(Jon reads the newspaper every day.)

 

Subject
The subject in the clause is the doer of the verb phrase. The person or thing that is doing something in the clause.

Subject Verb phrase
Jon leser avisen hver dag

(Jon reads the newspaper every day.)

 The subject can be identified by asking Who/What  + verb phrase  .

Who is reading? Jon.

Direct object
The direct object is a word or phrase in the sentence that receives the direct action of the verb phrase.

Subject Verb phrase Direct Object
Jon leser avisen hver dag

The object is found by asking What + verb phrase +subject(Jon reads the newspaper every day.)

Adverbial

An adverbial is a single word or a group of word that gives us answer to the following questions:

When? The answers to these questions show us when an action is done, or the duration or frequency.
How often?
How long?
Where? This answer shows where the action is done.
How? The answer describes the way the action is done.
How far? This is an adverbial phrase of measurement.
How much?

 

Subject Verb phrase Direct Object Adverbial
Jon leser avisen hver dag

A prepositional phrase usually functions as an adverbial in the clause.

Indirect Object
An indirect object tells to who/for who the action of the verb is done, and who is receiving the direct object.

 

Subject Verb Phrase Indirecte object Direct object Adverbial
 Jon  gir  meg  avisen  hver dag

(Jon gives me the newspaper.)

The indirect object can be identified by asking:

To who/For who + verb phrase + subject + direct object

To who gives Jon the newspaper every day? Me.

 

Sentence adverbial
This is an adverbial phrase that makes a comment on the whole sentence, not just a part of it.

The sentence adverbial consists of small words like ikke(not), alltid(always),aldri(never) etc.

Subject Verb Phrase Sentence adverbial Indirecte object Direct object Adverbial
 Jon  gir  ikke  meg  avisen  hver dag

(Jon does not give me the newspaper every day.)

Please notice that a sentence adverbial in a Norwegian sentence might be placed both in front of the Indirecte object and after. If the sentence starts with something else than the subject, the sentence adverbial can be placed both in front of and after the subject as well.

Your gateway to the Norwegian language.